Principle: Goal-directed practice coupled with targeted feedback enhances the quality of students’ learning.
Learning and performance are best fostered when students engage in practice that focuses on a specific goal or criterion, targets an appropriate level of challenge, and is of sufficient quantity and frequency to meet the performance criteria. Practice must be coupled with feedback that explicitly communicates about some aspect(s) of students’ performance relative to specific target criteria, provides information to help students progress in meeting those criteria, and is given at a time and frequency that allows it to be useful (Ambrose, Bridges, Lovett, DiPietro, & Norman, 2010, p.5).
For more information visit the Carnegie Mellon Eberly Center for Teaching Excellence and Education Innovation.
Ambrose, S. A., Bridges, M. W., Lovett, M. C., DiPietro, M., & Norman, M. K. (2010). How Learning Works: 7 Research-Based Principles for Smart Teaching. San Francisco, CA: Josey-Bass.